|Summary: In the late Ming dynasty (1368-1644), China suffered many troubles and difficulties. Externally, the Manchu army invaded through Shanhai Pass. Internally, the whole society was in turmoil: the peasant uprising led by Li Zicheng pervaded the country; the royal court fell into the hands *of treacherous officials headed by Wei Zhongxian; and laws and disciplines of the court were corrupted and the loyal people were persecuted. At that time, a group of aspiring intellectuals in the Region south of the Yangtze River established the Restoration Society, seeking to &amp;quot;revive ancient learning and reform the society&amp;quot;. Hou Fangyu, one of &amp;quot;the four gifted scholars&amp;quot; in the Restoration Society, was determined to serve the country. However, he failed in the imperial examination because of his criticism of the social problems. In Nanjing, he met Li Xiangjun, a famous courtesan in the Qinhuai River Area. Li Xiangjun admired Hou Fangyu's literary talent, especially his detached personality and idea of &amp;quot;opposing Qing and restoring Ming&amp;quot;. They fell in love with each other and got engaged with a white silk fan as a love token. Later, after the Manchu army marched through Shanhai Pass, Ruan Dacheng, Wei Zhongxian's adopted son, came to power and started to brutally persecute literati of the Restoration Society. Hou Fangyu had no choice but to escape from Nanjing. Ruan Dacheng then forced Li Xiangjun to remarry. But Li Xiangjnn would rather die than submit. In order to show her determination, she bumped her head onto a pillar, leaving blood spots on the fan. *ng Longyou, a fnend of Hou Fangyu's, was deeply moved by Li Xiangjun's chastity. He made a drawing on the fen and turned the bloodstains into peach blossoms. This was how &amp;quot;A Peach Blossom Fan&amp;quot; came into being. Several years later, Li Xiangjun was reunited with Hou Fangyu, but she found that her husband, who was once full of patriotic ambitions, had already surrendered to the Qing Empire and became an official. Deeply disappointed, Li Xiangjun, tom the fan which symbolized their loyal love in front of Hou Fangyu's face.